Nuhud al-Adra – Virgin’s Breasts (Revisited)

Knead sugar, almonds, samid and clarified butter, equal parts, and make them like breasts, and arrange them on a brass tray. Put it in the bread oven until done, and take it out. It comes out excellently.
Kitab Wasf al-Atima al-Mutada Chapter XI (The Description of Familiar Foods, trans. Charles Perry)
Features in Medieival Arab Cookery, ed. Maxime Rodinson.

If I had to nominate a signature dish, this would probably be it. I have cooked this dish multiple times, and handed out the recipe many times as well (you can find the original recipe, along with the story of its development, here). It’s an easy recipe, the biscuits are delicious, and there is room for as much innuendo as you please.

However, the texture was slightly grainy. I put this down to the sugar, because it’s difficult to cream clarified butter and sugar together, and the sugar doesn’t completely dissolve. I have recently been revisiting Middle Eastern cooking with one of my apprentices, and I noticed there are recipes in various sources calling for powdered sugar (which in Australia is known as icing sugar). Knowing powdered sugar dissolves very quickly in any liquid (such as clarified butter), I wondered whether replacing the caster sugar with icing sugar would give a better result. It does. The resulting biscuits have a much smoother texture, and are easier to shape as the mix is moister.


200g clarified butter 200g semolina
200g icing sugar 200g almond meal


  1. Preheat your oven to 180°C.
  2. Mix the semolina and almond meal in a bowl.
  3. If your clarified butter is not melted, melt it, and then combine with the sugar until the sugar is dissolved and the mixture is frothy. You can do this step with an electric mixer.
  4. Gradually add the combined semolina and almond meal to the butter and sugar – it is better to do this by hand.
  5. Take walnut sized balls of dough and press in to “breast” shapes. You can also mould small nipples and press them gently into the top of the “breasts.”
  6. Bake for around 12-15 minutes, until pale gold.


  • Clarified butter, or ghee, is butter with the milk solids removed. To make it, heat butter over a gentle heat until it is completely melted and bubbling. You will see a white scum on the surface. These are the milk solids. Strain the melted butter through a strainer lined with a double layer of muslin and you will be left with lovely clear clarified butter. Because the solids are the bit that makes butter go rancid, clarified butter does not need to be stored in the fridge. Some lactose intolerant people are fine with clarified butter, as most of the lactose is removed with the solids. You will need about 250g of butter to get 200g of clarified butter, or you can buy ghee from Indian or Middle Eastern grocers.
  • There is some debate about what samid is; it’s definitely some sort of wheat product, but it’s not normal wheat flour. Charles Perry believes it’s fine semolina (Perry, 2005, 22), which is made from durum wheat, also used to make pasta. It’s coarser than ordinary wheat flour. However, Nawal Nasrallah believes it’s finer than ordinary flour, in which case it would be similar to wheaten cornflour(Nasrallah, 2009, 573).
    Based on my own experimentation, I get better results from semolina, as wheaten cornflour loses too much structure in cooking, and you wind up with mush rather than dough. However , make sure you get fine semolina rather than coarse, as coarse semolina feels like sand in the mouth.
  • The original recipe specifies a “bread oven” temperature, which normally would mean a very hot oven. However, I have found that cooking the breasts at a temperature above 180°C leads to them burning quickly, while the middle is uncooked. And no one likes burned breasts.

Virgin's Breasts mk II

Further Reading

Click on the links below to order books directly from the Book Depository.
Nasrallah, Nawal (2009). Annals of the Caliphs’ Kitchens
Perry, Charles (2005). A Baghdad Cookery Book
Rodinson, Maxime (2006). Medieval Arab Cookery

Hulwa a’Jamiyya (Honey and Poppyseed treats)

Hulwa a’Jamiyya: Take half a pound [ratl] of flour and fry it in four ounces of sesame oil. Take a pound [ratl] of honey and put it on the fire, and if the honey is strong, add water. When it boils, throw it hot on the toasted [flour] and stir it and beat it white. [Take] poppy seeds and pistachios for it and throw them on it. Let the honey be covered with a dirham of saffron. Stir it and put it up covered. Kitab Wasf al-Atima al-Mutada Chapter X (The Description of Familiar Foods, trans. Charles Perry). Features in Medieval Arab Cookery, ed. Maxime Rodinson.

When people think of halwa (also halva, halvas or hulva) today, they think of the yummy, slightly gritty sesame-based sweet with nuts. But this is only one type of halwa – halwa literally translates as “sweet,” and refers to a dense sweet based either on flour and honey or sugar syrup, or nut butters/pastes and syrup.

One of the great problems I’ve found with redacting historical recipes is the translation of measurements. For instance, a common measurement in these recipes is the ratl, which often gets translated to “pound.” However, a ratl is NOT the same as an imperial pound, which caused bad results until I found metric equivalents. Furthermore, the same term had different meanings at different times and places, and ratl is certainly indicative of this! If you are interested in checking weights and measures, this site is a great place to start. For reference’s sake, in this recipe I have used the C12 Egyptian measurements. This is why I stick to metric measurements when I write recipes. It’s less painful.


225 g flour 4 tbs poppy seeds
120 mL virgin sesame oil (see Notes) ½ cup pistachios
450g honey Generous pinch of saffron


  1. Put the pistachios in a bowl of boiling water for about 20 minutes, then rub off the skins. Allow to dry.
  2. In a big, heavy based pan, heat the sesame oil over a low heat and then add the flour. Stir well so the flour is completely coated with the oil.  Keep stirring for around 10 minutes, until the flour has gone golden and smells toasted.  Be careful the flour doesn’t catch and burn.
  3. In another saucepan, heat the honey to the soft ball stage (112° – 116° C). Then remove it from the heat and skim off any scum.
  4. Steep the saffron threads in boiling water, then stir into the honey.
  5. Pour the honey into the toasted semolina, and fold in gently until well mixed and the mixture is pale.
  6. Add the poppy seeds and pistachios.
  7. Pour the mix into an oiled cake tin, and cover with cling film.
  8. Leave in the fridge for at least a day to allow the mix to set properly.
  9. When set, slice the mix with a knife dipped in warm water.


  • When you are dealing with sugar syrup in candy making, you’re transforming sugar from a solid to a liquid, and then back into a solid again, but in a more cohesive form.  You combine the sugar with water to dissolve it; but when sugar heats up, it keeps right on getting hotter (unlike water which reaches 100°C and doesn’t get hotter).  As the sugar transforms from solid to liquid, you are evaporating water out of the sugar syrup, and the amount of water evaporated will affect the final texture.  More liquid evaporated will result in a harder candy.
    As the sugar syrup reaches various temperature stages, it will start to behave in different ways, as described below:

    Temperature Description (Cold water method of testing) Stage name
    110° – 112° C The syrup drips from a spoon, forms thin threads in cold water Thread
    112° – 116° C The syrup easily forms a ball in cold water, but flattens once removed Soft Ball
    118° – 121° C The syrup is formed into a stable ball in cold water, but loses its round shape once pressed Medium Ball
    121° – 130° C The syrup holds its ball shape in cold water, but remains sticky Hard Ball
    132° – 143° C The syrup will form firm but pliable threads Soft Crack
    149° – 154° C The syrup will crack if you try to mold it Hard Crack
    160° – 176° C The sugar syrup will turn golden at this stage Caramel

    Prior to the invention of candy thermometers, candy making relied on spooning some of the syrup into cold water and watching how it behaved.  It’s known as the “cold water method” of checking the temperature, but the candy thermometer is much more precise.

    You can also treat honey as sugar syrup, but the results will have the distinctive honey flavour, and it needs to be watched more closely to ensure it doesn’t burn.  However, honey is less likely to crystallise badly when working with it. (LeBau, 2012, 21).

  • When working with sugar syrup, as I said, it can get a lot hotter than boiling water. And it’s sticky. SYRUP BURNS HURT. So be very careful when working with sugar syrup that you don’t splash yourself with it. The same goes for hot honey.
  • Because making candy from sugar syrup relies on evaporating the water from the sugar, it’s best to make candy on a cool, low-humidity day. Trying to make candy on a day of near 100% humidity, unless you are in an air-conditioned kitchen, is pretty darned impossible.
  • You don’t want to heat sugar syrup too rapidly; otherwise it can burn easily, or start to re-crystallise too quickly, and become grainy. Dissolve your sugar over a low heat, and once the sugar has completely dissolved, stop stirring. While the sugar syrup is cooking, regularly brush the sides of the pan with a soft, natural bristled brush. This will brush any syrup that has splashed onto the side of the pan back into the pan, and this will also stop crystallisation.
  • If you are used to Asian cooking you’ll assume sesame oil should only be used sparingly, as the type of sesame oil used in Asian cooking can be overpowering if used heavily. However, this type of sesame oil is produced from toasted sesame seeds, which heavily concentrates the sesame flavour and aroma. If you are familiar with modern Indian or Middle Eastern cooking, you might have come across virgin or cold-pressed sesame oil, which is much paler and more subtly flavoured. This is the sort you need to use for baking.

    If are going to be cooking for anyone with a sesame allergy, almond oil, rice bran oil or canola oil make good substitutes (the last two don’t have any flavour).

Hulwa a'Jamiyya

Further Reading

Click on the links below to buy direct from The Book Depository.
LeBau, Elizabeth (2012). The Sweet Book of Candy Making
Rodinson, Maxime (2006). Medieval Arab Cookery

Nuhud al-Adra – Virgin’s Breasts

Honestly, you see a recipe with that title… you have to make it work.

Knead sugar, almonds, samid and clarified butter, equal parts, and make them like breasts, and arrange them on a brass tray. Put it in the bread oven until done, and take it out. It comes out excellently.
Kitab Wasf al-Atima al-Mutada Chapter XI (trans. Charles Perry)

And here we have another problem with period recipes… You get ingredients, even some indication of quantity, but not precise quantities and no indication of how to actually combine the ingredients. There are a number of ways of combining butter and sugar for starters. It took about 5 goes to get this recipe right.

I started out with a cup of all the ingredients, creaming the clarified butter and sugar. The clarified butter and sugar didn’t combine well, and the biscuits crumbled if you looked at them too hard. The second attempt I cheated and used more butter, and raw sugar, hoping the molasses in the sugar would add extra liquid. It did… the biscuits ran.

The first breakthrough came when I realised I was making something similar to shortbread, so I found a modern recipe for shortbread that didn’t contain eggs, and adapted it to get the method of combining the ingredients (working with melted clarified butter). The second major breakthrough came when I realised I’d been working with equal volumes (that is, a cup of everything), when all the period recipes went by weight. So I worked out how much a cup of clarified butter weighed, and lo, it worked! There probably wasn’t much difference in weight to volume… but clearly there was enough to affect the outcome.


200g clarified butter 200g semolina
200g caster sugar 200g almond meal


1. Preheat your oven to 180°C.
2. Mix the semolina and almond meal in a bowl.
3. If your clarified butter is not melted, melt it, and then combine with the sugar until the sugar is at least partially dissolved and the mixture is frothy. You can do this step with an electric mixer.
4. Gradually add the combined semolina and almond meal to the butter and sugar – it is better to do this by hand. You will wind up with a crumbly dough that binds when compressed.
5. Take walnut sized balls of dough and press in to “breast” shapes. Bake for around 12-15 minutes, until pale gold.


Many thanks to the Mordenvale Company of Cooks, and the populace of Mordenvale, for their help and feedback while developing this recipe.

Shiraz Laban bi-Buqul (yoghurt/cheese dip with herbs)

Take mint, celery leaves and vegetable leeks and strip them all from their stalks and cut them up finely with the knife.  Throw them in the mortar, and when they release liquid after pounding, dry them off.  Then mix them well with shiraz.  Throw a little salt on it, as much as it will bear, and mustard pounded fine, and moderate its flavour with the mustard.  Put it in a vessel and strew its surface with a little nigella.  If you like, put pounded walnuts on it.Source: Kitab Wasf al-At’ima al-Mu’tada (The Description of Familiar Foods) trans. Charles Perry (C14 Egypt)

This is a very tasty, simple dip and would be served as part of the appetisers at a Middle Eastern banquet.


2 cups cottage cheese OR 2 cups Greek yoghurt 2 tsp mustard powder
4 tbs fresh mint leaves Pinch salt
4 tbs celery leaves 2 tsp nigella seeds
6 large spring onions 4 tbs walnuts, pounded in a mortar and pestle


Put the cheese or yoghurt into a square of cheesecloth and a strainer, suspended over a deep bowl, to drain excess moisture.  This is best done overnight to drain the maximum water.  Give the cheesecloth a final squeeze at the end.

Mince the herbs and spring onions, then add to the drained cheese/yoghurt, along with the salt and mustard powder.  Mix well.

Serve sprinkled with nigella seeds and ground walnuts.  A good accompaniment to crudite vegetables, or lavash bread.

Equipment required: cheesecloth, strainer and tall bowl to strain yoghurt; bowl to mix dip; mortar and pestle

Total Time: approx. 10 minutes to make dip + overnight

Difficulty Rating: X

Prep ahead of time?  Yes.

Serves: Would probably do 2 serves for a feast

Leftover Potential: Poor (saving food with dairy that’s been sitting uncovered for a while is a Bad Idea, and there’s rarely any left).


  • Shiraz is either a yoghurt or cheese drained of whey, which is the liquid remaining after milk has been curdled and strained.
  • Make sure you don’t accidentally use cheesecloth you’ve previously used to squeeze onions and zucchini for zucchini fritters.  It adds a very weird taste to the dip.
  • Herb measurements are vague – add more or less as you please.
  • This recipe also works well with coriander leaves or parsley leaves.

Allergy Notes

  • Vegetarian friendly
  • Gluten Free
  • Egg-allergy friendly